The Potomac Highlands
Watershed School's Environmental Forum provides a setting for
students and teachers to explore regionally important environmental
issues in depth. Students work both as a class and with other
students across the internet to understand problems and to seek solutions that are broadly
acceptable to their communities.
Current eForum is
All past eForums are archived
here. CI's highlights from
past eForums are here.
Environmental Forum 2007
Monday, October 22 to
Friday, November 16, 2007.
in 13 classes from 6 schools in 3 states challenged one another to
find solutions to the many problems caused by deer overpopulation.
Welcome to the "Oh Deer!"
Environmental Forum 2007.
For four weeks, beginning on October
22, you will join classmates and
students from other schools in exploring the environmental and
societal problems caused by deer overpopulation, and seeking
solutions that might really fix the problem and that your community
could find acceptable. You will learn about:
The range of problems that can be caused by an ecosystem out of
balance, with a lot of links to other websites, but starting
with a couple of essays from natural resource professionals.
Think of them as your own
suggested by state agencies and universities to control the
The politics of seeking solutions acceptable to our diverse
Hampshire High School
North Harford High School
Rappahannock High School
Petersburg High School
Buffalo Gap High School
East Hardy High School
"Oh Deer! Forum will use the following format:
material on this page, and gather information from additional
sources on the internet as needed. Don't be shy about
surfing the web to learn more. The links below should be
enough to get you started.
Each class breaks into
three to four stakeholder groups, with each group representing a stakeholder's point of view (POV),
farmer, hunter, forester, the forest, homeowner, insurance
about Stakeholders, try this
Groups in each class prepare "position papers" representative of
their stakeholder's POV. These papers are handed in to
their teacher and sent to CI for posting on the website (either
an on-line form or by email). POV posting will begin the evening of 10/26/07 and will continue
on a daily basis from that time forward.
POV's can be
submitted at any time beginning October 24. All schools
should have draft POVs posted no later than 11/2/07.
For some tips
on writing strong POVs, click
New (11/5/07) - click here for a
summary of all POVs that have been posted (updated daily).
New (11/7/07, updated 11/11-07)
You are all doing a wonderful job, and we enjoy reading
Always try to think through the "what happens
next" of your proposals. For example, if your
solution is to control the deer herd with more hunting, how will
the hunters respond when the deer herd starts to thin out and it
is harder for them to find a deer when they are hunting?
You can read about what did happen in
Pennsylvania. After all, too many deer might seem like
an easy problem to solve, but no one has successfully solved it
yet. Can you?
It is not enough to
propose something, you need to provide references that
support your approach if you expect your peers to take you
seriously. For example, a number of "Other
Stakeholders" suggest the use of birth control for deer to
reduce the population size. This has been tried and was
links below. It may sound like a good idea, but
does it actually work? If yes, cite references that describe
the results. If not, read why not and challenge the POV with
facts as opposed to beliefs.
A few POVs suggest
there is not really a deer problem, but do not cite any
references in support of their position. To the
(who is struggling to
control deer damage
in riverside tree plantings), it would seem that these
POVs could be challenged respectfully but forcefully.
Is everyone aware
that, many years ago, our eastern deer population was nearly
driven to extinction due to market hunting?
A quick Google search will find plenty of references on
that. Would controlled hunting for the restaurant and
home market be a useful tool for controlling deer?
Could it actually be controlled?
One last thing
to consider is
should be making policy about deer management? Who
does it now in your area? Do they take the concerns of
other interest group into account?
After Position Papers are posted to the web,
participants check out their peers’ work in other
classes and other schools, ask questions across the web, learn
more about the science and issues, and refine positions.
Questions" page, where students can ask questions of each other
and the moderator,
will be on-line beginning 10/29/07.
posted, after review, beginning 10/29/07. TQs now
posted for hunters, farmers, insurance and others.
For some tips on writing strong TQs click
Final Consensus Plans
that balance the needs of all
are negotiated in each classroom and posted to the web
on, or after, November 16, 2007
. 11/18/07 -
now being posted - Rappahannock High School was
first across the line, next is North Harford High, then Clear
Some tips on forming a consensus are
here. Note: In order to preserve your formatting, it is best to submit
your final consensus papers to Cacapon Institute as a Word
email instead of using a form.
Oh Deer! Consensus Plans will
be logical, will lay out your reasoning, including the pluses and minuses
of your plan, and will include literature citations
supporting your decisions.
What is a
stakeholder is a person or a group with an interest in the
success of an organization, project, or government action.
(To learn more about Stakeholders, try this
.) Stakeholders in the Bay cleanup include homeowners,
municipalities, fishermen, and farmers, among others. Each of these
groups will be affected by the measures that will be taken
to fix the Bay, and each wants a “seat at the table” when
options are discussed or decisions are made. Every
stakeholder group has interests that are unique to them, and
every stakeholder group wants to be heard. Your first
job will be to write a persuasive “Point of View” statement
for your stakeholder group that describes why you are
important, how the Bay’s problems (or related problems)
affect you, how the possible solutions affect you personally
and maybe affect your livelihood, and what solutions and
approaches your group would prefer.
For some tips on writing strong POVs, click
here. You will have two
"bites at this apple." During the second week each
group should really try to build a strong case for their
group's position - based on facts, not just belief.
Think about these questions:
the solutions “cost” you in any demonstrable way?
What do you have to give up?
the solutions benefit you directly?
could be done that would make your group more willing to
could the solutions be structured so your group would
prosper as a result?
would happen if you were so harmed by the process that
There are not a lot of ground rules
for this Forum. All serious entries will be posted as
submitted (including typos and grammatical errors). "Act of
God" solutions will not be considered. In other words, you may
not assume that the problem will solve itself. We are aware
that Chronic Wasting Disease has now been found in deer in our area
- if you choose to use this or other diseases as a deliberate part
of your "solution" that is up to you. Just keep in mind that
what you write will be available for the entire world to read.
here to view a short slide show about deer impacts on our
forested lands. (Note: this is a Flash presentation so you
need Flash to run it. It is 1 MB; if you have a dial-up
connection it will take a few minutes to download.)
To get things started, CI asked a WV forester and
a WV agronomist for their perspective on the effects of deer overpopulation on
the health of forests and viability of farming, respectively.
Consulting Forester and
David Warner (www.timberlandconsulting.com).
Dave's comments are excerpted below; his complete text is
As a forester, I probably have a somewhat different perspective on the deer
population than, say, hunters or other nature enthusiasts. I see the impact
of a high deer population on the forest vegetation, especially in the
understory layers where they have the highest and most immediate impact. The
dense vegetation layer, presence of tree seedlings, forbs, shrubs, and
wildflowers, even the accumulation of fallen leaves that forms much of the
litter layer on the forest floor, has largely disappeared over the past 25
years. I have watched the natural condition continue to deteriorate until
now wildflowers are a rare sight and browse lines, only seen before in areas
of extreme concentration such as in Canaan Valley State Park, have become
present almost everywhere in Hampshire, Mineral, Hardy, and to some extent
I used to see oak and other tree seedlings surviving under the forest canopy
virtually everywhere. In the last five years I can only remember seeing a
few scattered oak seedlings in maybe a couple of places in Hampshire County.
I have not seen trillium or most other once-common wildflowers for years,
except in a few small, isolated places in Hampshire County. Areas that were
timbered heavily 20 years ago or more have a good stand of young oak
established. Many places cut within the past 10 year or so, have virtually
no regeneration, largely due to the out-of-control deer population that
consumes everything in reach.
I’ve taken trips into Pennsylvania and seen areas the Pennsylvania
Department of Natural Resources thinks has an extremely high deer
population. Contrasted to what I see every day, they don’t even begin to
have a deer problem. The PA DNR is building protective deer exclusion fences
at the rate of about 5-6,000 acres per year. Inside these fences they have
ample tree seedlings and wildflowers that have apparently popped up from
dormant seed lying latent in the soil. Outside of the protected areas there
are still some scattered oaks and other tree seedlings and occasionally a
few wildflowers. In this part of WV the situation has persisted so long I
worry about the return of many of our native wildflowers. We don’t know the
dormant seed viability for most of these species.
Other wildlife also depends upon this same habitat. Wildlife is directly
dependant upon the vegetation of the area and the habitat management. As
this habitat continues to be degraded, it cuts into its capacity to support
native species, and is probably part of the reason we are seeing such an
increase in exotic invasive plants.
William Grafton, West Virginia
University. Many people feel deer have reached biological,
ethical, and economic carrying capacities in virtually all of West Virginia.
The biological carrying capacity occurs when births equal deaths, and the
population reaches the maximum number of animals that the environment can
support. Before the deer population reaches the biological and ethical
carrying capacities, it will have gone beyond the economic (societal)
carrying capacity. This is the point at which deer become an economic
liability: causing highway accidents, destroying crops and orchards,
damaging gardens and ornamentals, etc. West Virginia's deer herd has
not reached the biological carrying capacity, yet. There are still
hayfields, suburban ornamentals, flowers and landscaping grass and plants,
as well as, recent cutover forests to support a larger deer herd.
However, overpopulation already has caused negative impacts on forest
vegetation, tree regeneration and forest wildlife as a whole. The deer
population has exceeded the ecological carrying capacity, which is the level
where deer do not adversely affect associated forest species such as ruffed
grouse, rabbits, and ground dwelling songbirds.
incensed that deer are managed at high levels that can be the difference
between profit and bankruptcy. They have complained loudly and often
about damage to crops and the spread of disease from deer to livestock.
Surveys during the 1980s indicated deer damage costs to West Virginia's
agriculture was about $35 million annually. No surveys have been made
recently to update these figures. Primary damages have occurred to
orchards, alfalfa, and corn. However, specialty crops such as berries,
grapes, pumpkins, etc. are also severely damaged. Many farmers state
that deer damage has forced them to quit farming or to switch to crops of
lesser value but more resistant to deer herbivory. Most switches are
to grass, hay, and pasture and away from corn, alfalfa, and truck crops.
It is difficult to
place dollar values on deer damage, but the fact remains that a mature deer
eats 5-7 pound of plants or fruits per day. When this food comes from
agricultural crops, farmers often face a critical situation. Severe
damage occurs when deer browse young plants of apple, alfalfa, grape,
and corn (especially as the silk stage). These damaged young plants
can never reach full economic value despite the already heavy economic
investment in seed/seedlings, fertilizer, ground preparation, etc.
Gardening was once a way
of life in West Virginia. Deer that formerly lived in the forest have
adapted to humans and their pets. They now readily show up in for the
smorgasbord in the garden and landscaped yards.
What do we mean by overabundant?
Well, using WV Division of Natural Resources buck kill numbers, the
white-tail population in the Cacapon’s Lost River watershed was
estimated at 11,854, or about 67 per square mile back in 1998.
What does that number mean? The Bureau of Forestry in
Pennsylvania has this to say: "White-tailed deer populations in
excess of 20 per square mile are common in many areas of state
forest land and such populations are largely responsible for the
lack of woody and herbaceous regeneration. Deer exclusion fence
studies have documented that deer populations of 16 per square mile
or less allow regeneration of woody and herbaceous species to occur,
thus preserving the species diversity present in the forest when
normal bureau harvesting activities occur."
Here's the link.
You can learn about the ecosystem
impacts of overabundant deer and
the challenges of controlling them
here. (Note: the first link is to Audubon Pennsylvania's major
Deer in Forest Habitat From an Ecosystem Perspective; I
suggest you start with the Executive Summary to this report.)
clip on top Pennsylvania wildlife biologist Gary Alt will
provide a sense of the challenges. Mr. Alt is now a former PA DNR employee - he quit because they wouldn't aggressively face the
deer problem and is now working independently with other groups
trying to address overpopulation.
an article from Audubon Magazine, "Public Menace", about the
challenges of controlling deer in Pennsylvania that tells the Alt
story in detail. Highly recommended!
at West Virginia University found
that deer foraging threatens the survival of ginseng, a medicinal
plant that lives on our forest floor and generates more than $2
million in income annually for harvesters. The original
research paper is
here. When the lead researcher involved in that project
was interviewed on National Public Radio about their results, he
made the startling statement that we need to restore major
predators, such as wolves and mountain lions, to protect our forests
from overgrazing by deer. Why would he be willing to go on
national radio and say something so controversial? You can
find some clues
here. This story was covered by all the major media,
The economic impacts of overabundant
deer are staggering.
a very good overview. Use
for an excellent piece on the impacts of deer on agriculture in New
About now you probably think we hate
deer. We don't. They are beautiful animals that play an
essential role in our ecosystem, and provide pleasure of many kinds
to many people. The problem is ours. The New York Times
published an editorial on March 30, 2005 that said it very
"Deer are simply heeding
the biological imperative to go forth and multiply. With no
natural predators, and the suburbs a year-round salad bar, they
have slipped out of their ecological niche - and it's our fault,
not theirs. The deer did not ask human beings to create the kind
of predator-free suburban landscapes in which they now thrive.
But the mountain lion, gray wolf and bobcat are not about to
return, and the houses and highways are staying put. People,
therefore, must own up to their place in a compromised food
chain, and assume the responsibility for managing it well.
contradict our innate assumption that only ugly creatures can be
vermin. As the recent release of the "Bambi" DVD reminds us,
they seem miscast as villains. But wise conservation means
looking at the environment as a whole - from the smallest
wildflower on forest floor to the biggest brown-eyed herbivore.
The whole system - not just the prettiest mammals - needs
WV Division of Natural Resources offers suggestions for controlling
agricultural damage from deer
here, discusses deer management to protect habitat
fundamentals of deer management and estimating deer populations
State has a nice and short piece on a deer control experiment
here. Pennsylvania is leading the way in using fencing to
help regenerate forests; read about that
and then see if you can find more information about deer
fencing on the web.
Institute is a member of the West Virginia Potomac Tributary
Strategy Implementation Team (WVPTS). Our challenge is
to promote land management practices in West Virginia that protect
our local rivers and also the Chesapeake Bay. One of the most
important things that landowners can do is grow "buffers" along the
edges of streams on their land. Buffers consist of
unmowed grasses or forests that filter pollutants before they can
reach the stream. Some of our WVPTS projects are Riparian
Forest Demonstration Projects, where we planted trees along the South Branch of the Potomac and
Cacapon rivers and are monitoring the results. Click
here for a project overview, and then click
here for first year
results and here
for second year results. As you see, deer are an overwhelming
problem. Cacapon Institute now
conducting an experiment to see if we can increase the success
of the plantings. Thousands of miles of these riparian buffers
are being planted throughout the Bay watershed - what matters is not
that the trees are planted, but that they actually grow into
number of students noted that the deer population seemed to be
getting smaller over the last couple of years. The following
graph showing data on the buck harvest since 1995 would support that
observation -- but it also indicates that the size
deer harvest fell sharply in 1998 then climbed rapidly in the
following several years. If it is in fact getting smaller now,
what could cause that change? WVDNR has said that wildlife
biologists had predicted an increase for 2004, but that larger than
expected harvest declines may have been caused by the record
antlerless deer harvest in 2002, the decline might be due to several
years of poor acorn production, or bad weather in the first three
days of the season may have kept people out of the woods (Moorefield
Examiner, Dec 18, 2004). The last several winters may also
have reduced the number of fawns carried to term, or caused
increased over-winter mortality in the deer herd.
Whatever the cause - is this a trend? A cyclic variation?
Or something else? WVDNR uses the buck harvest to estimate the
total deer population; to learn more about how DNR does it, click
using their formula to estimate the deer population per square mile
in your county for the years in the graph at left.